Disposal is defined as the interruption of local transmission of a well-specified Plasmodium species in a geographical area defined as a result of deliberate efforts. Continual measures are required to avoid the recovery of the transmission. (Certification of the elimination of malaria in one country implies that local transmission has been interrupted for all species of Plasmodium parasita humans).
The eradication of malaria is defined as the permanent reduction to zero of the global incidence of infection caused by human malaria pests as a result of deliberate activities. There is no longer a need for intervention once the eradication has been achieved.
The pace of progress in a particular country depends on the robustness of the national health system, the level of investment in malaria control and a number of other factors, such as biological determinants, the environment and Social, demographic, political and economic realities of the country in question.
In countries with moderate to high malaria transmission, national malaria control programmes are aimed at minimizing the number of cases and deaths due to this disease.
When countries approach elimination, enhanced surveillance systems contribute to the detection, treatment and notification of each infection in the National Malaria Registry. Patients diagnosed with malaria should be treated quickly with effective antimalarial drugs in order to protect their own health, but also to avoid further transmission of the disease in the community.
Countries that have managed for at least 3 consecutive years to zero local malaria cases meet the requirements to ask who to certify the elimination of malaria. In recent years, the Director-General of WHO has certified that 8 countries have eliminated malaria: the United Arab Emirates (2007), Morocco (2010), Turkmenistan (2010), Armenia (2011), Maldives (2015), Sri Lanka (2016) and Kyrgyzstan (2016 ) and Paraguay (2018).
The WHO Framework for Malaria Elimination (2017) provides a comprehensive set of tools and strategies for achieving and maintaining elimination.